What is Legal Tender?

September 21, 2010 at 5:49 pm • Posted in ALL POSTS, Business, Economy, Federal Reserve141 Comments

Can businesses refuse to accept cash for payment?

Under 31 US Code, Section 5103, all coins and currency of the United States, including Federal Reserve notes, are legal tender “for all debts, public charges, taxes and dues.”

If a debtor makes an attempt to pay his debt by offering to his creditor legal-tender currency or coin in the amount of the debt (such an attempt to pay is termed a “tender of payment”), then the creditor cannot afterward complain that the debtor was unwilling to pay, unless the contract between them provided for some other means of payment.  That is what “legal tender” means.  The debtor has made a valid and legal offer of payment.  If the creditor were to sue the debtor for non-payment of the debt, the debtor would have a complete defense.

At the present time, Federal law does not make it illegal for the seller of goods or services to prescribe another form of payment before there has been a final contractual agreement.   Nothing in the Federal law prohibits a conract for the sale of property to specify that payment is to be made by certified check or money order.  Similarly, Federal law does not prohibit bus lines from refusing to accept payment in pennies or dollar bills, and movie theaters and gas stations from declining to accept Federal Reserve notes in large denominations as a matter of policy.  However, state law may restrict the right of a service provider to specify the form of payment which it will accept.   In Pennsylvania, the Cash Consumer Protection Act makes it illegal for service providers to refuse to rent or sell property or services to individuals who do not possess or utilize credit cards.  73 PS Section 204-3.  Other states may have similar statutes on their books.

Cancer Theory

September 20, 2010 at 8:16 pm • Posted in Healthcare356 Comments

During my career as a chemist, I have observed that people who should get cancer, don’t, and people who shouldn’t get cancer, do. I, personally, have had the dubious distinction of having handled all of the top ten cancer agents during my career. I have also handled some radioactive material. I have made some some observations about the subject from what I have seen and heard.
My father worked at the Bremerton shipyards helping in the construction of ships during WWII.  He told me that the dust was so thick in the holds, that he couldn’t see the person standing next to him.  After the war he worked in the woods until he fell from the crown log (about 12 feet high) and broke his neck. At age 65, he could lift and carry 300 pounds.  In his  70’s he could still run like an elk.  He died at age 89 from a worn-out heart muscle (as the doctor put it).  He never had a hint of lung disease of any kind.
From all I have learned about cancer over the years, I have observed that there are probably two factors involved.
Many blame asbestos for causing cancer, but it is different than all of the cancer agents in the top ten because it is chemically inert. It doesn’t with chemically react with anything. The rest of the top ten are highly chemically reactive. So are the rest of suspected cancer agents. This has led me to suspect that asbestos does NOT actually cause cancer. It instead injures the lung tissue making it more suseptable to cancer. I know that there are people who have asbestosis who have not contracted cancer.
My theory is that cancer is a two step process. First, there must be an injury or an abnormality in the tissue before it is susceptibile to cancer.
Second, there must be exposure to a chemically active cancer agent to initiate the process.
For years, we have been warned that sunburn (skin injury) early in life can cause skin cancer later in life. There is a province in China that has an abnormally high incidence of throat cancer. It was disclosed that their diet consists of some especially abrasive vegetables and their throat tissue is unusually scarred. My neighbor’s father had throat cancer after he had throat surgery. My uncle had his abdomen crushed by a falling forklift load of lumber. A few years later, he developed colon cancer. My mother had severe sunburns when she was young. She later developed skin cancer. Bruises also may cause sufficent injury to tissue to make it suseptible to cancer agents. Radioactive agents are also associated with the development of cancer. It not only damages tissue, it can alter body chemistry by injecting foreign material in the form of high speed charged particles or alter tissue with the high energy gamma rays (X-rays).
Remember, this is a theory, but it deserves some investigation because it makes sense.

Evolution Scam

September 20, 2010 at 6:15 pm • Posted in ALL POSTS, Evolution, Science490 Comments

For years, the theory of evolution was attributed to Charles Darwin. In reality, he was only responsible for the theory of natural selection. He observed that certain lifeforms were only found in some areas, but were totally absent in others. After traveling to many places to study this phenomon, he published his observations. Basically it says “a species will survive and fluorish in an ecosystem that is compatible with its needs. If it is moved to an ecosystem that does not meet those needs, it will not fluorish and may even perish. For example, if all the food in a region only grew in high up in the trees, giraffes would do well while pigs would not. The pigs would either migrate to an area where the food was available at or close to the ground or eventually starve to death.
If evolution were to occur, the pigs would either grow claws so that they might be able to reach the elevated food or grow longer necks and legs. If this had been happening, one would see each species with all sorts of variations in their shape and skeletal structure because they had metamorphized to accomodate their particular ecosystem.
One major problem with this theory is that it violates the law of physics known as ENTROPY. Entropy is defined as “The tendency for everything to go to disorder”. Humans, new cars, homes, and everything else on the planet once formed will start a process of deterioration. My eighth grade teacher once told us “when you are born, you are the most perfect you will be and from that day on, you will begin to deteriorate and age for the rest of your life” or at least, words to that effect. A people can observe the process of entropy in action every day everywhere they look.
Evolution assumes that somehow we started out as a bunch of elements such as oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and 20 or more other elements came together randomly to form a mass which came alive with the ability to consume, react to stimulus, learn and dump the unwanted waste elements when they were no longer of any use to the mass. Think about it.

Fuel mileage tips

September 16, 2010 at 5:35 pm • Posted in ALL POSTS, General Tips & Advice360 Comments

1. Travel approximately 2 seconds behind the vehicle traveling ahead of you. The larger the vehicle, the greater the fuel economy that is obtained. Note: doing this does not cause a reduction in fuel mileage for the vehicle in front of you. The compression of air from the front of your vehicle actually reduces the air drag on the vehicle in front of you although the increase in fuel mileage for the leading vehicle is small. The two second rule also gives you sufficent time to safely stop if your brakes are in good working order. (If he’s bigger than you, chances are that he can’t stop as fast as you and will give you a safe path with which to stop) Wind speed and direction will independently cause variations in fuel savings. If you feel a little side to side turbulence from the vehicle you follow, you are probably getting the best economy.
2. A gas computer or vacuum guage will give instaneous indications as to fuel economy. I installed a gas computer on my “66” Powerwagon in the mid-80’s and discovered lots of different things I could do to alter my fuel economy. The maximum change occurred when a vehicle towing a mobile home merged onto the freeway in front of me while I was towing a travel trailer. I experienced a 50% increase in mileage while he was in front of me.
3.Keeping your tires at or near maximum pressure reduces rolling resistance and gives you better mileage. The properly inflated tires run cooler and wear longer than ones at lower pressures.
4. Avoid sudden increases in acceleration and time your speed to coincide with traffic signals so you don’t have to speed up and slow down.

Freon 12 scam

September 16, 2010 at 3:45 pm • Posted in ALL POSTS, Freon, Science603 Comments

I first wrote that freon was not causing ozone depletion in the 1980’s, but I couldn’t get anyone to publish my paper. When I first heard about the theory, I contacted my former physical chemistry professor to ask him to help me obtain the pertinent data from NOAA and NASA. This allowed me to check whether the validity of that assertion. With the data he gave me along with knowledge I already had, I was able to determine that the claim was false. (I hated doing these calculations when I was in college.)
First, I calculated that relative masses of freon as compared with air. I determined that freon was 4.2 heavier than air. It should be found near the earth’s surface in stead of at an elevation of 25 kilometers where the people who proposed the theory were saying that the destruction of the ozone was taking place.
Second, my professor told me that the actual particle that was supposed to be destroying the ozone was a carbon-chlorine radical with no fluorine even being present. This fact told me that it was impossible to guarantee a link between freon 12 and that radical, especially since most cities and large industries were generating huge amounts of chlorinated hydrocarbons because they used chlorination to disinfect contaminated water before they discharge it into streams, rivers, bays, and the ocean. Furthermore, when I conducted mean-free path calculations for the ozone and chlorine-carbon radicals at this elevation using concentration data I received from my former professor, I determined that the probability of a collision occuring between these two particles was one ten-millionth OF one ten-millionth of a chance per cubic meter per second. This number says nothing about whether these few collisions would be ones which could transfer sufficient energy to cause a disintegration of the ozone molecule.
The third and perhaps the most important thing I did was to consider the logic of this proposed theory. At the time, the oxone levels were most diminished at the North and South poles. The last time I checked, there aren’t a lot of refrigeration units to be found at either of the poles. Also, at the same time the original claims were being made, I heard on the news that the city of Los Angelos had the highest levels of ozone on the planet. Unless I’m mistaken, they also probably have the highest number of air conditioning units per square mile on the planet as well as the highest number of freezers and refridgerators of the planet. My question is:”Why do they have such an ozone problem with all these refridgeration units all around them?”
The logical answer for the ozone problem lies with the solar winds. The earth is receiving a continual bombardment of high speed charged particles from the sun as well as other sources in space. These particles are attracted to the poles because of the magnetic fields found there. This stream of charged partilces is destructive to any molecule in its presence and would be especially so for a molecule as unstable as an ozone molecule.
Bad science has once again cost the American taxpayers billions of dollars unnecessarily.

Government blunders and coverups

September 12, 2010 at 1:04 am • Posted in ALL POSTS, Government106 Comments

In 1974, the decision was made by our leaders to lower the speed limit to conserve gas, because of the oil shortages. Instead of helping the situation, it actually made it worse.
For years, Detroit’s automotive engineers had been designing their cars to get maximum mileage at 70 MPH. Engines were designed to run at specified RPMs (Rotations Per Minute). Rear differential gear ratios and tire diameters were designed to be compatible with these designated RPMS. Camshafts, too, are rated for specific rpms.
When the speed limit was lowered to 55 miles per hour, nearly all cars suffered losses in gas mileage. One of my cars went from 17 mpg (Miles Per Gallon) to 15 mpg. Another person I was aquainted with had his station wagon drop from 18 mpg to 12mpg. Others, too, had similar complaints.
One manufacturer had torque converters designed for high rpms (High stall speeds). At the lower speed limit, there was excessive slippage in their torque converters causing not only poorer fuel efficiencies, but increased heating in their automatic transmissions.
Carburetors of that era also were designed for specific air flows to achieve maximum performance. All of these factors contributed to a poorer performance for the majority of vehicles. This actually worsened the fuel shortage crisis.
When a lawsuit was filed to repeal the law, the government testified that the death toll had dropped because initially, the judge ruled that fuel efficiency was not a justifiable reason. Later, he overuled the lawsuit based on testimony from Washington State officials saying that lives were being saved. The problem was that they were guilty of perjury.
According to their own data, the deaths per million miles driven had been dropping for the three previous years (1971, 1972, 1973) at 70 miles per hour. According to data from a state publication(1) which claims to be based on Washington State Patrol data, indicates that the rate per million miles driven rose steadily for the next three consecutive years.
The people responsible for this fraud should be held accountable. They should be sued and have their pensions revoked.
Citizens should NEVER blindly trust their elected officials. Citizens should check the validity of what they are told. After all, these people work FOR the public. Be skeptical and vigilent or it will cost you your liberties. Do you want to leave your children one step closer toward a totalitarin government?
(1) The publication was the “Pocket Data book for 1977”.
Note: I had noticed the death toll for the summer of 74 was actually higher than the summer of 1973. The news also indicated that summer travel was 98% of that of the previous year.
There were two possible reasons for these increased rates.
1. Increased times to travel from point A to point B resulting in increased exposure times for accidents.
2. Longer travel times would result in a greater chance of fatigue and inattention.

Mercury pollution from Volcanoes

September 6, 2010 at 12:37 am • Posted in ALL POSTS, Mercury, Science740 Comments

Several months ago, I read that the Centralia coal-fired steam plant was estimated to be putting out 1 to 3 pounds of elemental mercury per day. This might have seemed to be a serious problem to me if I wasn’t aware of the fact that volcanoes and other naturally occuring sources put tens of thousands of pounds of elemental mercury into the environment each day. Mount St. Helens put out more than 2000 pounds of mercury per day when it was at its active stage. Kilauea volcano in Hawaii puts out 1500 pounds per day and has been doing so for years. (This would be equivalent to the amount recovered be recycling 861 million fluorescent light bulbs per day.).
Volcanoes worldwide discharge every element known to man in massive quantities. The wind and water spread these elements and chemicals to every place on this earth. Toxic or not,these materials are a naturally occurring part of the environment. When I called the Washington State Dept. of Ecology, to suggest to them they should start monitoring the rainwater for mercury, I was informed that sampling for mercury had recently begun near Neah Bay. I was given the web address of the site. Though the site did not have rainfall totals or wind directions on the site, the data clearly indicates that there were periodic episodes of mercury deposition at the site (Note: There are no man caused sources for mercury in that region of the state).
It intrigues me that everyone seems so focused on mercury pollution when the amount of uranium and thorium (Both are radioactive) are 8 to 24 times more abundant in the earth’s crust than mercury. There are at least 20 known occurances of uranium in Washington alone.
Kilauea also emits 10,000 TONS of CO2 per day, 4000 TONS of SO2 per day (ultimately yielding 6000 TONS af pure surfuric acid per day) 4000 gallons of water per MINUTE, and dozens of other toxic metals and hazardous minerals in varying quantities EACH DAY. These are the emissions of only ONE volcano. One must remember that there are also many undersea vents to consider.  Readers should google the term “vog”.  That will be a real eye opener.

lead wheel weights

September 3, 2010 at 12:58 pm • Posted in ALL POSTS, Lead, Science169 Comments

During a recent Washington State legislative session, a bill to ban lead wheel weights was passed. Like many well-meaning acts of the legislature, it has several serious flaws.
The purpose of the bill was reduce the amount of lead in the environment. This is an impossible goal. Between 1960 and 1975, vehicles deposited approximately 250,000,000 pounds of lead along roadways as an oxide or a bromide. These were byproducts of having three grams of tetra-ethyl lead in gasoline. Having this fact in mind, one must also recognise that every ounce of lead that we have deposited in the environment, we previously removed from the environment. It can be estimated that are 2.4 quintillion TONs of lead in the earth’s crust and it was here before man was. Ironically lead is one of several elements that is naturally increasing in concentration in the earth’s crust and will continue to do so for billions of years into the future. Remember, man did not create lead, it has always been here.
The advantages of lead wheel weights were several. Because lead is soft, it is easier to fit on the wheel. It is the least expensive high-density material available. If a lead wheel weight falls off while a car is traveling down the road, it won’t bounce off the pavement and strike other cars or their windshields causing an increase in accidents and injuries. It mashes down onto the pavement and is not easily thrown back up into traffic by tires. Lead wheel weights don’t wedge into cracks in the pavement and puncture tires causing an increase in accidents. The replacement material fails ALL of these qualities. The main reason that this was BAD legislation, is the elemental lead is relatively inert in the environment. It does NOT readily dissolve in rainwater. That is one reason it is used for battery posts. It resists corrosion from even strong mineral acids. The substitute material used in the new wheel weights meets none of these criteria. The new weights are made zinc-plated steel. I personally collected rainwater running off of zinc-plated steel and the zinc dissloved in that water was 10 times the level that is dangerous to fish and other aquatic life. When I put this statement in my report, my supervisor wouldn’t allow it because no one had ever published that fact before. I collected another sample the next time it rained from zinc-plated steel with exactly the same results. The statement was allowed in the report. Zinc-plated steel is far more dangerous to aquatic life and humans than elemental lead and the public should require that the law be reversed.
I might add that I have lost less than a dozen lead wheel weights in more than a million miles of driving.

Blue emergency lights

September 1, 2010 at 4:06 pm • Posted in ALL POSTS, Law Enforcement, Science270 Comments

Years ago, the Washington State Patrol switched from red flashing lights to blue lights at a heavy cost to the taxpayer. I don’t remember the justification given, but I thought it was a waste of money at the time. Recently I thought back to a demonstration of the Tyndall effect that my physics teacher in high school showed us in class. It demonstrated that light passing through a medium with suspended particulates will be reflected and refracted depending on its wavelengths. As the particulate per unit volume increases, the shorter wavelengths of light (blue) are scattered back and dispersed while the longer wavelengths of light were still transmitted through the medium. Simply stated, the last color to be filtered out is red (The longest wavelength in the visible spectrum). This is why we observe red sunsets rather than blue sunsets when there is dust, smoke, or some other source of particulates in the air.
Red was always the best color for emergency lights. Someone should be required to repay the taxpayers of Washington State for that boondoggle. (Note: Now you know why you don’t see blue lights used on aircraft.)